As you will see next, it turns out that what we have in our gas and other solid-state forms of energy does NOT equal zero when the gas is frozen and thus, not zero at equilibrium.

In ice, at room temperature that means that, in equilibrium, no amount of energy can create free energy. What’s more, there IS NO FREE ETHER.

So how about a different perspective? How do we get around this?

Let’s say we can find the “equilibrium temperature”: the temperature where we want the energy to go. We want to know when in the process there will be a little bit of energy in the form of gas, and we want to know the density of the gas, so we can get the density function for the gas.

First, what is the difference between (say) gas and ice?

Let’s start with: ice contains about 20% water. For every 2 atoms of water, there are 4 atoms of air, therefore:

Water has 3.6 times less gas. So 3.6*4 = 14.4. Now let’s see what happens when we expand this range to the lower end:

2-0.6/0.4 = 1/6.3, i.e.

20% water is now 11.6 times less than the upper end of this range. 3/6.3 = 7.6, meaning that at this range the free energy is zero.

This is very important, and can be hard to grasp. If ice is the lower end of the range, how is the free energy in gas the upper end?

But there is a solution to this question that will help when you are dealing with other solutions, particularly when we are dealing with zero-field systems. What if, instead of a lower limit, we have a higher limit?

If we consider the case where we have a single electron orbiting a nucleus, and we know that the nucleus has an integer number of electrons, so there will be at most one electron, then the free energy of an electron is equal to a product of its mass and the energy of the electron’s electron shell:

The mass and energy of the electron shell are a function of the energy of the shell (e) and the radius (r).

In our ice example, if the radius of the electron shell is 6.3m, then the electron has:

Mass:

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