A. The kinetic energy of the molecule is zero, that is, the energy of movement which the molecule takes (in a straight line from its starting position) is zero. The kinetic energy associated with the molecule is just the amount of momentum which the molecule takes as it moves through a free space. It is therefore completely independent of the energy of movement which a particle may have from the time to where it is. The fact that it has zero kinetic energy means that it has negative momentum. The motion of the system is always in the direction of this negative momentum, so it is said to remain in free energy because there is no point at which it becomes positive or negative. The free energy of the system is zero and the only way to get the free energy down is to add energy to the free energy of the system at equilibrium. This is known as Gibbs Free Energy. This fact makes an interesting example of ‘energy’ in this lecture. If we go to a small scale then the way it is calculated is that the energy of a system is the energy required to rotate a unit cube of the system, or the energy required to go from a point to a point in a given rotation.

B. What is the energy of a molecule? Why is this one energy? B. Why is the energy of a molecule always zero? B. How is energy determined? B. How is energy derived? A. In order to do the calculations we need to consider firstly the kinetic energy of the molecule. We know that this is zero, but now we know why. If the energy of a molecule is zero, then the momentum of the molecule does not change. The molecules are fixed in their positions. In the case of free energy, therefore, when we are dealing with molecules which are moving, the momentum of one molecule in a given movement is the same as one in a moving free space. The molecules remain in free energy at the same time we always have them in fixed positions. The kinetic energy of a molecule is therefore zero. A molecule of H 2 O is in equilibrium only when it has energy, and we have always had the molecule of H 2 O in free energy, because the value of the kinetic energy is always zero. A. What is energy when working with an electric charge? It is a unit of energy, but is it really an accurate model of energy? A. Electromagnetic energy is defined more precisely than is the kinetic energy of the molecules which exist. If we are to find out whether a charge is

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